Objective: The heart rate variability (HRV) has been used in patients with heart failure as a non-invasive method and provided neuro-cardiovascular evaluation. This study was planned to determine the efficacy and prognostic value of 24-hour and short time HRV in autonomic dysfunction in patients with congestive heart failure. Methods: Forty-six patients with symptomatic or asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction <40%) were included to the study. In the study group, 16 patients were in NYHA class I (35%), 19 - were in NYHA class II (41%) and 11 - were in NYHA class III (24%). In the first day, HRV was evaluated from the 24-hour Holter recordings. Following day; we assessed the HRV during: (1) 10 min of supine resting, (2) 10 min of regular breathing at a frequency of 20 acts/min, and (3) 10 min of passive orthostatism after tilting 80o with tilt table. Results: Twenty-four hour and short time recordings of HRV showed significant decrease in long-term LF/HF24 (LF- low frequency, HF- high frequency), and short-term LF/HFsupine, LF/HFbreathing and LF/HFtilt ratios in patients with NYHA class III when compared with the patients in NYHA class I-II (p=0.0001, p=0.01, p=0.03, p=0.0001, respectively). During 446±186 days of follow-up, cardiovascular end-points occurred in 20 patients. In Cox multivariate analysis, significant predictors of cardiac mortality and morbidity were, reduced LF/HF ratio (HR=0.4, 95%CI 0.31-0.73, p=0.001) in the 24-hour recordings and low left ventricular ejection fraction (HR=0.9, 95% CI 0.83-0.99, p=0.03). Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that both of the methods were useful for assessment of cardiac autonomic dysfunction and only 24-hour recordings of HRV had a prognostic value.
Objective: In this study we aimed to examine the angiographic findings, traditional risk factors and natural history of Turkish patients <40 and ≥40 years old with coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods: The records of 491 patients with stable angina pectoris or acute coronary syndrome (ACS), who had undergone coronary angiography (CAG) were reviewed. The patients <40 years (group 1) and ≥40 years (group 2) were compared. Results: The study population was classified as group 1 with 240 patients (mean age 35.7±3.4 years) and group 2 with 251 patients (mean age 61.0±9.7 years). Smoking, family history, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were more prevalent in group 1 while diabetes mellitus, hypertension was higher in group 2. The common presentation among <40 years patients was ACS whereas stable angina was the most common presentation in patients ≥40 years old. Patients in group 1 showed a preponderance of single-vessel disease whereas patients of group 2 showed dominance of multivessel disease. Early clinical course of patients with ACS in group 1 was better than in group 2. Conclusion: Our study shows a significantly different clinical, angiographic and biochemical profile in <40 years patients with CHD compared with ≥40 years patients. Dominance of smoking and dyslipidemias that are the preventable risk factors in premature CHD patients is an important threat for our community health. Healthy life styles should be encouraged beginning from young ages and new precautions about smoking must be taken.
Altan Onat, Hakan Özhan, Günay Can, Gülay Hergenç, Ahmet Karabulut, Sinan Albayrak PMID: 17513206Sayfalar 128 - 133
Objective: To investigate the relative roles of serum apolipoprotein (apo) B and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol levels in predicting incident coronary heart disease (CHD). Whether apo B/apo A-I ratio has advantage over apo B in this prediction constitutes a secondary aim. Methods: Prospective evaluation of 1138 men and 1210 women, aged 28-74 years participating in the TEKHARF survey 1997/98 with a mean 5.9-years follow-up in whom serum apo B was determined. Tertiles of LDL-cholesterol were formed by cut points of 130 and 100 mg/dl, and of apo B by 120 and 95 mg/dl. Metabolic syndrome was defined by modified ATPIII criteria. Nonfatal CHD diagnosis was based on history of angina and myocardial revascularization, physical examination of the cardiovascular system and Minnesota coding of resting electrocardiograms. Results: Apolipoprotein B showed significant correlations with a greater number of parameters than did LDL-cholesterol. Incident CHD was not significantly predicted in age-adjusted logistic regression by LDL-cholesterol but by apo B concentrations in men with a relative risk (RR) 1.005. Apolipoprotein B level >120 vs <95 mg/dl retained significance in both genders combined, even after adjustment for waist girth and log C-reactive protein. The top (>1.02) compared with the bottom bracket of apo B/A-I ratio, though not reaching significantly predictive values among women, did significantly predict in men incident CHD with a RR 1.89. Conclusions: Apolipoprotein B, which marks small, dense LDL particles in plasma is a better predictor of incident CHD than LDL-cholesterol among Turkish adults. While in the prediction of CHD apo B level should be preferred in women, an apo B/A-I ratio >1.02 has advantages over the latter in men. It is time to create the environment (at least in our cities) for measuring in equipped laboratories apo B, which has advantages over measurements that permit calculation of LDL-cholesterol.
M. Tuna Katırcıbaşı, H.Tolga Koçum, Mehmet Baltalı, Tansel Erol, Abdullah Tekin, Fatma Yiğit, Göknur Tekin, H. Tarık Kızıltan, Haldun Müderrisoğlu PMID: 17513207Sayfalar 134 - 139
Objective: Early mortality after coronary artery bypass grafting is generally higher in women than in men. This study analyzes the effect of female gender on early mortality of coronary artery bypass grafting particularly for left main coronary artery disease. Methods: Study population consisted of 144 consecutive patients (33 women, 111 men) undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting for left main coronary artery disease. Mean follow-up was 25.1 ± 14.0 months. Data were collected retrospectively and presented as mean ± standard deviation. Survival analysis was done using Kaplan-Meier actuarial curve method with the log rank univariate test, followed by Cox's proportional rate multivariate model. Results: Overall mortality was 7% in the patient population. Cox regression analysis revealed that the independent predictors of increased total mortality were female gender (HR 8.34, 95% CI 1.79 - 38.76, p=0.007), advanced age (HR 1.12, 95% CI 1.02-1.23, p=0.014), degree of left main coronary artery stenosis (HR 1.068, 95%CI 1.005-1.135, p=0.03), and left ventricular ejection fraction (HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.87-0.99, p=0.03). Female gender was found to be the only independent predictor of increased early mortality (HR 13.18, 95%CI 1.444-120.343, p=0.02). After discharge from the hospital, female gender was no more a predictor of increased mortality. Conclusion: According to these data, we may assume that female gender is related with increased mortality in coronary artery surgery for left main disease in the pre-discharge period however after discharge from hospital, long-term benefit of female survivors of coronary artery bypass grafting operated on for left main coronary artery disease might be as good as in men.
Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine how the major risk factors are related to each other in the development of coronary artery disease (CAD) using Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID). Methods: All patients with suspected CAD seen in the cardiology clinic between January 1999 and February 2003 who underwent coronary angiography were included in the study. A retrospective analysis was performed in 1381 patients. In all patients sex, age, type II diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, systemic hypertension, smoking status, family history of CAD, body mass index (BMI) were assessed. Results: According to classification tree, first-level split produced the two initial branches: female (unadjusted presence percentage = 48.07%) versus male (unadjusted presence percentage = 78.02%). For the male aged between 49-81 years and the female aged between 15-48, 49-60 and 61-71 years, diabetes mellitus was the most prominent risk factor. However, hypercholesterolemia was the best predicting variable for the females aged between 72-81 years. For the females of 15-48 years and 49-60 years age categories without diabetes mellitus, smoking status and family history of CAD had important contribution to the model. Conclusion: Sorting the major risk factors of CAD from the most to least according to the classification importance was resulted as sex, age, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, family history of CAD and smoking status.
Objective: In this study we compared cardiothoracic ratio on chest radiography and left ventricular dimensions from echocardiography in patients with left heart valvular regurgitation. Methods: The studied population consisted of 107 patients (55 male, 52 female) aged 7 to 25 years (11.6±4.7 years) with isolated mitral or aortic regurgitation. Chest radiography and echocardiographic examination were performed on the same day in every patient. Results: Among 26 patients with moderate mitral regurgitation, cardiac enlargement was found in 4 (15%) patients on chest radiography, and in 7 (27%) patients on echocardiography. Among 25 patients with severe mitral regurgitation, cardiothoracic ratio was normal in 20 (80%) patients whereas cardiac enlargement was documented in 17 (68%) patients on echocardiography. Although there was no patient with cardiac enlargement (CE) on chest radiography in the groups of mild and moderate aortic regurgitation, 50% of patients in the group of severe aortic regurgitation had CE on chest radiography; cardiac enlargement was detected in 62% patients with moderate and 100% patients with severe aortic regurgitation on echocardiography. We found a good relation between the severity of valvular regurgitation, especially for aortic regurgitation, and CE on echocardiography; however only a poor relation was detected between the severity of valvular regurgitation and CE on chest radiography. Conclusion: In conclusion, prediction of severity of valvular regurgitation using chest radiography may lead to false interpretations and so, plain chest radiography may not be an essential part of the routine evaluation of such patients.
Ömer Aydıner, Bilal Boztosun, Mustafa Şırvancı, Mustafa Akçakoyun, Kutlay Karaman, Tamer Aksoy, Levent Onat PMID: 17513211Sayfalar 152 - 157
Objective: Carotid artery stenting is a new approach alternative to surgical carotid endarterectomy. Cerebral protection devices improved the applicability of this technique. In this study, we evaluated applicability, safety and late clinical outcomes of percutaneous interventions for carotid artery stenosis. Methods: A prospective study included 26 patients (15 female, 11 male, mean age 70±16 years) undergoing percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting with different sizes of balloons and stents for 28 internal carotid artery stenoses at Kadir Has University Department of Interventional Radiology between March 2002 and December 2004. Ten patients were asymptomatic, one had amaurosis fugax, four had transient ischemic attack within last four months, one had drop attacks, one had headache, seven had the findings of hemiparesis and three had hemiplegia. Results: Stenosis rates were calculated according to North America Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial. Median stenosis rate was 85% (range: 60%-95%). All of the 28 internal carotid artery stenoses were managed with balloon dilatation and stenting (technical success rate 100%). Median residual stenosis rate after procedure was 14% (range: 0%-30%). Asystole developed in five patients and bradycardia in eight patients. Ipsilateral middle cerebral artery infarction occurred in two patients. One patient had intracranial reperfusion bleeding four hours after the procedure. No procedural death was observed within one month of follow-up. One patient died of myocardial infarction four months after the procedure. Cranial computed tomography revealed multiple metastases in one patient complaining of intractable headache and primary source was found to be pulmonary carcinoma. No stent restenosis was defined at Doppler ultrasonographic examinations performed 6 and 12 months after procedures with normal flow patterns and velocities. Two patients underwent control angiography at 12th month and myointimal proliferations with insignificant obstruction (25% and 30%) were detected. Conclusion: Carotid artery stenting seems to be applicable and safe procedure but it is associated with infrequent major complications. Results of studies comparing surgery and angioplasty will be helpful in defining role of stenting in the treatment of carotid occlusive disease.
Ufuk Tütün, Ferit Çiçekçioğlu, Baran Budak, Mehtap Temirtürkan, Ali İhsan Parlar, Mustafa Seren, Ahmet Tulga Ulus, Salih Fehmi Katırcıoğlu PMID: 17513212Sayfalar 158 - 163
Objective: The study aim was to investigate the effect of blood glucose level on atherosclerotic lesion distribution and the contribution to the operative mortality/morbidity in diabetic patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods: Between 1986-2003, a total of 2095 patients with diabetes mellitus underwent CABG. The analysis was carried out retrospectively from the clinical records. The patients were divided into four groups according to the blood glucose levels that were obtained when they first applied to hospital; Group 1 (492 patients with blood glucose < 120 mg/dl), group 2 (1112 patients with blood glucose - 120-200 mg/dl, group 3 (261 patients with blood glucose 201-250 mg/dl) and group 4 (230 patients with blood glucose > 250 mg/dl). One way ANOVA test was used for the statistical analysis of continuous variables and Chi-square test was used for analyzing the categorical variables. Results: Emergent operation rate due to acute ischemia gradually increased from Group 1 to Group 4 and reached 6.6% in Group 4 (p=0.005). Operation time and the duration of cardiopulmonary bypass and cross clamp were significantly longer in patients with high blood glucose levels (p<0.05). Necessity for inotropic drug administration postoperatively (p<0.05) and mechanical support (p<0.05) were significantly higher also. The hospital mortality in group 3 was 9.6% and in group 4 was 11.3% (p=0.09). No statistically significant difference was found in terms of morbidity between the groups (p>0.05). The multi-vessel coronary artery disease was more common in groups with high blood glucose level (p<0.05). As the blood glucose level raised, patients were more frequently (p<0.05) confronted with distal left anterior descending artery, middle circumflex artery and right coronary artery lesions. Conclusion: Uncontrolled blood glucose level not only increased the perioperative complications but also the incidence of middle and distal coronary artery lesions. It is necessary to diagnose and aggressively treat the high blood glucose level especially before the CABG.
Objective: To evaluate nosocomial infections (NI) following cardiovascular surgery (CVS), and to share the first seven-year experience of the infection control commission in a private medical center. Methods: Active prospective and laboratory based surveillance program of the hospital from January 1999 to December 2005 was used and all patients who were found to have NIs after CVS during their stay or readmission were included. Results: A total of 14502 cardiovascular operations were performed and 416 (2.9%) patients had 494 NIs. The most prevalent infections were surgical site infections (42%) and urinary tract infections (22%). The most frequently isolated microorganisms were coagulase-negative staphylococci (19%), Escherichia coli (16%) and Staphylococcus aureus (16%). A total of 99 patients (24%) died. The mortality rates were high in patients with blood-stream infections (58%) and lower respiratory tract infections (37%). The 2003 was the year with the lowestNI rate when compared to 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004, and 2005 (p< 0.005). Conclusion: This study allowed an evaluation of NIs, including incidence and distribution, following CVS. While carrying on the studies to prevent NIs that are responsible for serious morbidity and mortality, risk factors also need to be identified in order to take preventive measures, other than the ones present.
Okan Gülel, İlke Sipahi, E. Murat Tuzcu PMID: 17513214Sayfalar 169 - 178
Coronary angiography is the gold standard for the detection of coronary artery disease, but it only gives information about the lumen of the coronary arteries. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) has provided a new perspective for imaging the coronary arteries. It allows assessment of not only the lumen but also the vessel wall and atherosclerotic plaque. In this article, we review the technique, measurements and current applications of IVUS imaging of the coronaries in a question-answer format.
A close association between anxiety disorder and sudden death is known. If any underlying heart disease exists, it is easy to discuss this association. If it does not, it is difficult to explain anxiety disorder as a cause of sudden death. In case of acute anxiety, many complicated physiologic events, which have capacity of contributing to sudden death, occur. On the other hand, accelerated atherosclerosis ensues in the case of chronic anxiety, and the latter increases vulnerability to sudden death through development of coronary events.
The main reasons for traditional right ventricle apical pacing were first, the ease of implantation and second, the stability of passive-fixation leads in the apical trabeculae. However, apart from some specific diseases like hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, apical pacing often results in substantial functional, hemodynamic, electrical, and structural changes as previously demonstrated in many studies. Only in recent years, interest in the use of alternate pacing sites has developed. Right ventricular outflow tract is the preferred site of pacing because of its potential advantages such as ease of application, better hemodynamics, synchronous activation, less myocardial perfusion defects than apical pacing. The present review article comprehensively discusses this novel technique in terms of its beneficial effects compared to apical pacing and as an alternative method for biventricular pacing.
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